Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm that allows us to model real-world entities as objects. In Python, objects are created from classes, which act as blueprints for creating objects with specific attributes and behaviors.

Let’s explore how to define classes and create objects in Python:

# Defining a class
class Car:
    def __init__(self, brand, model, year):
        self.brand = brand
        self.model = model
        self.year = year

    def accelerate(self):
        print("The car is accelerating.")

    def brake(self):
        print("The car is braking.")

# Creating objects (instances)
car1 = Car("Toyota", "Camry", 2020)
car2 = Car("Honda", "Civic", 2019)

# Accessing object attributes
print("Car 1:", car1.brand, car1.model, car1.year)
print("Car 2:", car2.brand, car2.model, car2.year)

# Calling object methods
car1.accelerate()
car2.brake()

Explanation:

  • We define a class Car that represents a car object.
  • The __init__() method is a special method called a constructor, used to initialize the object’s attributes (brand, model, year) when it is created.
  • We define additional methods (accelerate() and brake()) that represent the behaviors of a car.
  • We create objects (car1 and car2) by calling the class as if it were a function and passing the required arguments to the constructor.
  • We access the object attributes using dot notation (object.attribute).
  • We call the object methods using dot notation as well.

Now it’s time for a practical task:

Task 11:

Create a class called Rectangle that represents a rectangle object. The class should have attributes width and height, and methods calculate_area() and calculate_perimeter() to compute the area and perimeter of the rectangle, respectively. Create two rectangle objects and test the methods.

Once you’ve completed the task, you can proceed to the next lesson.